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Encrytion Technology - Export Restrictions

- Fred Greguras' U.S. EXPORT REGULATIONS ON SOFTWARE - March 6, 1995

The US Government forbids its citizens from publishing encryption source or truly secure software on the net. However, there are no restrictions on importing such material. Due to such one-way restrictions, non-US companies are now the leading producers of secure Internet software (the leading US product (Netscape) can be easily cracked, due to export restrictions).

The US Government has in effect forbidden US software vendors from competing in this marketplace.

Fortunately, people like Adam Back, in the UK, have been kind enough to share encryption technology (publicly available from non-US sites), with those of us who are forbidden to publish it here in the US.

Cryptographic APIs

- Microsoft's CryptoAPI (CAPI) - the exportable crypto standard for Win32 applications

Secure Internet Protocols

- Microsoft's Private Communication Technology (PCT Draft) - provides more flexibility than SSL
- Microsoft/VISA's Secure Transaction Technology (STT V1.0)
- Netscape's Secure Sockets Layer (SSL/HTTPS V3.0)
- Secure HTTP (SHTTP)
- RFC1510 - The Kerberos Network Authentication Service

Secure IP/Datagrams

- RFC1825 - Security Architecture for IP
- RFC1826 - IP Authentication Header (AH)
- RFC1827 - IP Encapsulation Security Payload (ESP)
- RFC1828 - IP Authentication using Keyed MD5 (AH MD5)
- RFC1829 - The ESP DES-CBC Transform (ESP DES-CBC)
- RFC1851 - The ESP Triple DES Transform (ESP DES3)
- RFC1852 - IP Authentication Header using Keyed SHA (AH SHA)

Random Number Generators

- RFC1750 - Discussion on randomness.

Certificates, Envelopes and MIME

- X.509 Encoding of Diffie-Hellman Public Keys
- RSA's PKCS-7 Cryptographc Message Syntax Standard
- RFC1805 - Locator-Independent Data/Software Integrity Protocol (LIDSIP)
- RFC1847 - Security Multiparts for MIME (S-MIME)
- RFC1848 - MIME Object Security Services

Digital Signing and Content Rating

- Microsoft's Athenticode Digital Signing System
- Microsoft's Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS)

Privacy Enhancement for Internet MAIL (PEM)

- RFC1421 - Message Encryption and Authentication Procedures
- RFC1422 - Certificate-based Key Management
- RFC1423 - Algorithms, Modes and Identifiers
- RFC1424 - Key Certification and Related Procedures

Public Key Exchange

- RSA's PKCS-1 Public Key Exchange Algorithm
- RSA's PKCS-3 Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Algorithm
- RFC1824 - The Exponential Security System (TESS)

Cryptographic Specifications

- RFC1321 - MD5 hash algorithm
- NIST FIPS PUB 180-1 - Secure Hash Standard (SHS)
- NBS FIPS PUB 46 - Data Encryption Standard (DES)
- NIST FIPS PUB 186 - Digital Signature Standard (DSS)

Public Source

- Adam Back's "RC4 in 3 Lines of Perl"
- Adam Back's "RSA in 2 Lines of Perl"
- Adam Back's "Diffie-Hellman in 2 Lines of Perl"

Other References

- FBI's attempts to ban encryption - Electronic Privacy Information Center
- Grafman's Internet Security Info
- PGP Developer Resource
- VeriSign's Web Site

Privacy & Politics

- The Electronic Frontier Foundation
- Republicans Against Censorship

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